Turning Lathe

Metalworking machines in this category are, as the name suggests, primarily suitable for the turning manufacturing process. They can be used to produce rotationally symmetrical workpieces (turned parts). Drilling operations are also possible with Bernardo lathes if the center of the hole is on the turning axis. In addition, lathe lathes can be expanded with functionalities for milling or shaping operations.

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ELMAG INDUSTRIE 1500/330 HD Universal-Drehmaschine
44.780,90 EUR
19% VAT excl. Shipping costs
Bernardo Cycle lathe CHC 2280 - 550 x 1870
Price on request

Lathe - everything you need to know

Lathes are undoubtedly products that require explanation. For those of you who are not yet too familiar with lathes, we have compiled the most important information below.
 

Content

General information about lathes

What is a lathe?
How is a lathe constructed?
How does a lathe work?
What are the types of lathes?
For which applications are lathes suitable?
For which workpieces are lathes suitable?
What is the difference between lathe and lathe?
How long have lathes been around?

Buying advice for lathes

For whom is a lathe suitable?
Which lathes are the best?
How do I find the right lathe?

Notes on the operation of lathes

How to operate a lathe?
What must be observed when working with lathes?


Important key figures of lathes

How do I determine the cutting speed of a lathe?

What is the center distance on a lathe?
What is the center height on a lathe?
What is the swing diameter on a lathe?

Lathe - Cleaning and care


Cleaning the lathe after use
Lubricate the lathe correctly
Oil level check on the lathe
Changing the oil on the lathe
Checking the drive belts of the lathe 
Lubrication of the change gears of the lathe
Maintenance of rack and lead screw of the lathe
Maintenance of combined leading and traction spindle of the lathe 
Removal of rust from the lathe
Lubrication via the oiler of the lathe
Ideal maintenance intervals of the lathe


General information about lathes

What is a lathe?
How is a lathe constructed?
How does a lathe work?
What are the types of lathes?
For which applications are lathes suitable?
For which workpieces are lathes suitable?
What is the difference between lathe and lathe?


What is a lathe?

The lathe is a machine tool used to machine workpieces. While the workpiece rotates, a wedge-shaped tool - the so-called turning tool - ensures chip removal. Lathes can be used to produce various rotating bodies such as cylindrical turned parts, conical or spherical bodies, or even free forms.

In specialist circles, the lathe also bears the affectionate nickname "Queen of Machine Tools". After all, the lathe is the only machine that could reproduce itself - with the assistance of a qualified user, of course.

How is a lathe constructed?

Drehmaschine Bernardo


Lathes are composed of several components with different functions. These components are:

  • Machine bed

The so-called machine bed is the area of the lathe that supports the tool slide, the tailstock and the steady rests. Since a lathe in use generates vibrations, the machine bed is usually made of special vibration-damping materials. These are usually cast iron with lamellar graphite or reactive resin concrete. In addition, cavities are filled with sand or resin-bonded granite or polymer concrete.

  • Spindle boxes/Spindle stock

The so-called headstock with its precision bearings guides the work spindle, which in turn is linked to the motor of the lathe via toothed or V-belts and a frequently multi-stage gearbox. Clamping devices, such as chucks, collets or face plates, ensure that the torque is transmitted from the main spindle to the workpiece.

  • Tool slide

The so-called mold slide is made up of three components: Bed slide with lock case, face slide and top slide. The tool holder, such as a turret, is mounted on the latter.

  • Tailstock

Especially when long workpieces are machined on the lathe, the so-called tailstock is needed. Be it for support, for holding parts between centers or for installing drilling tools. In addition, steady rests are also used for long and thin parts. These support and thus prevent both bending and vibration of the workpiece.

How does a lathe work?

Lathes are primarily used for machining workpieces - usually cylindrical. For this purpose, the workpiece is first clamped in the lathe. An electric motor then ensures that the workpiece rotates around its own axis at a certain speed, which can usually be adjusted according to lead. Chips can be removed from the workpiece with the aid of the so-called turning tool.

What are the types of lathes?

 

Lathes exist in many different construction variants and in different degrees of automation. In our store you will find various types of lathes or lathes from the manufacturers Bernardo, ELMAG and Holzmann.

Our assortment is designed so that there is a suitable device for everyone. A small lathe or a Bernardo lathe for model making differs significantly in its dimensions and areas of application from high-performance machines such as cycle lathes, which are intended for use in industrial mass and heavy processing. In addition to center width and height, the machines also differ in swing diameter, bed width, spindle bore, speed range, travel, quill and motor power. Apart from center lathes and feed screw lathes, we have table lathes, universal lathes and cycle lathes.

The comprehensive range is rounded off by the versatile machining center, which can be used not only for turning, but also for drilling and milling work, for example. On request, you can receive extensive lathe accessories for all machines, with which you can expand the area of application of your machine tool.

To make it easier for you to find the right Bernardo lathe, the individual subtypes of the available lathe types in this category are briefly explained below.

Center lathes

A center lathe is manually operated and is the most popular and widespread variant of its kind today. It allows the application of various turning processes and is easily expandable. Machine tools of this type are usually designed horizontally with the main spindle on the left and the tailstock on the right. Besides their versatility.

The reason for the popularity of the lathe genre in its ease of compatibility in the field of single-part and small-batch production of workpieces and the relatively low acquisition costs.

Universal lathes

Universal lathes are characterized by their variable range of applications: They can be used to process a wide variety of materials of different sizes, including steel, non-ferrous materials and plastics. This makes the machines suitable not only for training companies, but also for repair stores or variable use in production. They are mainly used in series production. From a technical point of view, universal lathes are either automated devices such as advanced center lathes or numerically controlled universal lathes, so-called CNC lathes.

Cycle lathes

Cycle lathes enable heavy and diverse automated work on workpieces in cycles. From chip removal to grooving and thread cutting to drilling. They are primarily designed for the economical production of individual units or for precise small batch production.

Table lathes

Bench lathes are ideal for hobbyists and DIY enthusiasts who need a lathe in their private workshop or garage. Since small dimensions are required here at a tolerable cost, the handy table lathes offer a good compromise between quality, size, sufficient performance for home work and acquisition costs.

Machining centers

Machining centers are machine tools that enable the complete machining of workpieces: they combine the functionalities of lathes with options for milling and drilling. In addition, some models have an automated tool change. Machining centers are not only suitable for professional use among precision mechanics, but also for training companies and apprentice workshops.

For which applications are lathes suitable?

Lathes are suitable for a variety of different manufacturing processes. These include:
 

  • Round turning
  • Thread turning
  • Facing
  • Grooving
  • Profile turning
  • Form turning

In general, lathes are mainly used for the production of parts that are usually manufactured by turning. These include, for example, shafts, screws, bolts, axles and spindles.

For which workpieces are lathes suitable?

Lathes are suitable for machining metal, mostly cylindrical workpieces in a wide range of sizes. Among other things, the size of the workpiece determines which lathe is best suited for you. After all, the clamping width and working area must match the dimensions of the workpiece.

Typically, lathes are used to manufacture parts such as shafts, screws, bolts, axles and spindles.

 

What is the difference between lathe and lathe?

Strictly speaking, lathes are the forerunners of today's lathes: they do not have a mechanical drive - the tool is guided by hand - and, unlike lathes, have at most one tool slide. However, due to colloquial usage, the term "lathe" is sometimes still used today in the sense of "turning machine". Classical lathes, on the other hand, are now only common in the field of woodturning in woodworking.
 

Buying advice for lathes

For whom is a lathe suitable?
Which lathes are the best?
How do I find the right lathe?


 

For whom is a lathe suitable?

Lathes are always an excellent choice when it comes to machining cylindrical or tapered workpieces. They are used primarily in craft businesses, in training companies and in industrial toolmaking whenever round turning, thread turning, facing, grooving, profile turning and form turning are involved.

Basically, when using lathes, certain safety precautions such as donning protective equipment must be taken. Otherwise, there is a risk of injury, such as from the tools, the workpiece or flying chips. There is also the possibility of clothing or hair getting caught in the workpiece.

Persons who do not have adequate training - for example, as a cutting machine operator - or who have no experience whatsoever in the use of lathes are not recommended to use a lathe without appropriate expert supervision.

 

Which lathes are the best?

When you buy a lathe, you should go for a manufacturer that has many years of experience in this field. This is exactly what we did when we were faced with the decision of which manufacturers to include in our range. The decision has fallen on the following three manufacturers:

These three manufacturers each have more than 30 years of experience in the field of lathes. Time enough to make small adjustments and improvements to the devices again. So that you now benefit from the highest precision, incomparable user-friendliness and, on top of that, a long service life of the lathes.

How do I find the right lathe?

Which lathe is right for you depends on several factors. These include, for example:

  • Individual use case

Different lathes are suitable depending on the application. For example, how often the machine is used plays a role here. The more often, the more worthwhile it is to spend more money here. The hardness of the materials to be machined is also an important criterion. The harder, the greater the load on the lathe. Therefore, before buying, make sure that it is a stable device. Important indicators here are good bearings and solid designs made of heavy gray cast iron.

  • Price

If you set yourself a price limit when purchasing a lathe, the sheer endless choice can be narrowed down relatively quickly. What you should not forget, however, is that quality has its price. For the hobby workshop, a less expensive device is usually sufficient. However, if the lathe is intended for use in the professional sector, it is usually worth buying a higher-quality and therefore more expensive lathe. After all, the loads here are also significantly higher.

  • Frequency of use

How often will you use the lathe? This criterion can also be used to make a preliminary selection. Devices that are only used now and then naturally have different requirements than those that you use in your daily work. The following applies here: the more often, the higher the quality, the more expensive.

  • Service charges

As with so many things, the purchase price alone is not enough for lathes. Wear is virtually inevitable, especially with frequent use. Accordingly, you should look into the costs of possible spare parts before you buy - these vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The same applies to the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, depending on the performance of the motor, lathes also differ in terms of their power consumption. Accordingly, there are also different ancillary costs here.

  • Size

Make sure in advance that your premises offer enough space for your desired lathe. While benchtop lathes can easily fit into just about any hobby workshop, other machines require significantly more space. Also keep in mind that you will need space to operate the lathe in addition to this.
This should also be ensured at the intended location of the device.

  • Technical data

Before buying, take a look at the technical data of your desired lathe. The following points are usually important for you:
Drive Make sure that the drive has sufficient power. Ideally, the drive can also be controlled continuously.

  • Tip width & tip height

Based on these two key figures, you can see which workpiece sizes are suitable for the respective lathe.

  • Accessories

What is included and what you may need to buy additionally. For example, a steady rest is recommended for long and thin workpieces.And do you need cooling lubrication?

If you consider all these criteria, the selection can usually be narrowed down to a few models. If you still need help, please contact us. We will be happy to help you.

Notes on the operation of lathes

How to operate a lathe?
What must be observed when working with lathes?

 

How to operate a lathe?

The professionals among you are welcome to skip the following chapter. All those who are not yet too familiar with the lathe will learn here how best to machine the workpiece.

Clamp workpiece

To clamp the workpiece, first open the clamping jaws to a suitable diameter. Then place the workpiece flat to the contact surfaces of the clamping jaws. Make sure that the workpiece is not out of balance, does not wobble, and does not slip when fixed. Clamp the workpiece properly. Also insert the workpiece as far as possible into the chuck, maintaining a safety distance between the chuck and the turning tool of ideally five millimeters.

Insert / change tool

When inserting the tool, it is important that you use the appropriate insert. A Torx mini tool, for example, is suitable for changing the tool. Make sure not to exceed the permissible tightening torque. Refer to the manual of your device for information on this. Open the retaining clips to the maximum. To do this, adjust the lever on the quick-change holder accordingly. It should then be possible to remove the previous tool simply by lifting it upwards. Now insert the new tool in the same way. Clamp the new tool hand-tight with the fork and make sure that the quick-change holder is not twisted.

What must be observed when working with lathes?

Classic lathes and lathes are usually open in space, which is mandatory given the fact that they are operated by hand. One risk factor is the high speed at which the drive spindle rotates. If a part, above all the key for the chuck, is not adequately fastened, it quickly mutates into a dangerous projectile. Serious injuries are inevitable here.

Therefore: Check where the key is located before switching on!

Ideally, you should always remove the chuck key as soon as you have opened the chuck. This way you are on the safe side.

In addition, it is advisable to wear protective clothing and goggles, especially when performing cutting work on the lathe. Experience has shown that flying metal chips also pose a risk of injury.
 

Important key figures of lathes


How do I determine the cutting speed of a lathe?
What is the center distance on a lathe?
What is the center height on a lathe?
What is the swing diameter on a lathe?


How do I determine the cutting speed of a lathe?

The cutting speed is an important factor for achieving the best possible results when machining on the lathe. Both too high and too low cutting speeds have a negative effect on the production quality and can also cause damage to the tool.

When turning, the following formula applies here:

Cutting speed = pi * d * n

d = diameter of the workpiece at tool engagement

n = spindle speed

The appropriate cutting speed therefore depends on the size of the workpiece, the tool geometry, and the material of the tool. Also relevant is the question of whether, and if so, which cutting fluid is used. If you use cooling lubricants, you can usually work at higher cutting speeds. Water is usually used here because it has the highest heat capacity of all natural fluids. Water therefore stores thermal energy particularly well. However, since the lubricating effect leaves much to be desired and water also promotes corrosion, it is advisable to add appropriate chemical substances.

What is the center distance on a lathe?

The center distance, also referred to as the turning length between centers, is the maximum turning length that can be achieved with the particular lathe. You can find the center distance of your lathe either by looking at the technical data or by dismounting the chuck of the machine and fitting the spindle with a face driver. You then measure the center distance between the tip of the face driver and the tip of the tailstock quill.

What is the center height on a lathe?

Center height means the radial distance between the tailstock center and the nearest guideway of the machine bed.

What is the swing diameter on a lathe?

The swing diameter on a lathe is nothing more than twice the center height.

 

Lathe - Cleaning and care 


Regardless of whether your lathe is to run without malfunctions, work precisely and without errors or perform its service for a particularly long time - the decisive factor in each case is that you clean and maintain your lathe at regular intervals. This will also keep repair costs to an absolute minimum. When cleaning and maintaining your lathe, the focus should be on those parts that naturally need to be oiled or lubricated at regular intervals. Typical wear parts of a lathe also need special care or should be replaced in good time. 
Important: How often you should maintain your lathe depends on how often and how intensively you use your lathe. 

Cleaning the lathe after use
Lubricating the lathe correctly
Checking the oil level on the lathe 
Changing the oil on the lathe
Checking the lathe drive belts 
Lubrication of the lathe's change gearsMaintenance of rack and lead screw of the lathe

Maintenance of combined leading and traction spindle of the lathe 
Removal of rust from the lathe
Lubrication via the oiler of the lathe
Ideal maintenance intervals of the lathe

 

Cleaning the lathe after use


If you love your lathe, you clean it after every use. Free the machine from all coarse chips. Ideally, you should use a chip hook, a hand broom, a brush or an industrial hoover. Important: Do not use compressed air. The flying chips are not only dangerous for your eyes, but also for your lathe. If the chips get into the guides of the lathe, it can be damaged. 

Lubricate the lathe correctly

How to lubricate your lathe correctly depends on which model it is. Since the devices differ greatly in terms of the lubricants and operating materials to be used as well as in terms of the recommended maintenance intervals, it is advisable to take a look at the operating instructions. Maintenance instructions should be listed there.

Oil level check on the lathe 

Gear machines that are in use every day usually require an oil level check once a week. The right amount of oil is present when the oil level reaches the middle of the sight glass. Check the oil level at the following points: 
- Feed gear 
- Bed slide gearbox 
- Main gearbox 

Changing the oil on the lathe

How often you should change the oil depends on how old your lathe is. If it is a new machine, the first oil change is required after only six months. After that, an annual replacement of the gear oil is sufficient. Refer to the operating instructions of your lathe to find out where to fill the gear oil - either SAE80 or AES90.

Checking the drive belts of the lathe 

It is recommended to check the drive belts of your lathe every six months. Check the condition of the belts and the belt tension. The tension of the belts on your lathe can be found in the operating instructions for your machine. Tip: The service life of the drive belts and the tensile force can be increased with so-called belt tension and preservation sprays.

Lubrication of the change gears of the lathe

The change gears of your lathe also need to be lubricated. Here you have two options: either gear spray or multi-purpose grease. 
Gear spray not only creates a thin lubricating film, but also protects the change gears from corrosion. To achieve this, turn the jaw chuck slowly and apply the spray directly to the change gear. 
If you use multi-purpose grease, you will need a brush. Take up some grease with the brush and apply it to the gears. 

 

Maintenance of the rack and lead screw of the lathe


You also have two options for the rack and lead screw: Multi-purpose grease or spray grease. If you use multi-purpose grease, you need a brush to apply the lubrication to the rack and lead screw. If you choose spray grease, you spray it on the lead screw and adjacent sliding surfaces. 
 

Maintenance of combined lead and pull spindle of the lathe

Spray grease is also useful for maintaining the combined lead and draw spindle. To gain access to the spindle, push the spring guard backwards. Then spray the spindle all over.
 

Removal of flash rust from the lathe


Over time, so-called rust film will form on some parts of your lathe. To remove this, you need a rust remover spray and a cleaning fleece or wet sandpaper. Spray the affected area and then rub off the rust with the fleece or sandpaper. You may need to repeat this process for best results. 
If the area affected by rust is a sliding surface, proceed in the same way. Spray and rub. Important: In order not to damage the sliding surface, you should use a cleaning fleece here. After you have removed the rust, you should lubricate the corresponding sliding surface again. 

 

Lubrication via the oiler of the lathe


Your lathe is equipped with oilers or oil nipples. You need a suitable oil can to top up the oil here. Important: Only fill in oil via the oil nipples, grease is out of place here. And use an oil can whose mouthpiece is suitable for the oil nipples installed. Otherwise, experience has shown that oil leaks out during filling.
 

Ideal maintenance intervals for the lathe


The ideal maintenance intervals for your lathe depend on how often the machine is used. For daily use, the intervals are as follows: 

Activities After use weekly Half-yearly
Cleaning the lathe x    
Lubricating all bare machine parts with the oil can x    
Checking the tension of the V-belts on the headstock   x  
Lubricating the change gears and lead screw   x  

Lubricating the oils on the bed slide

  x  
Adjusting the guide play of the top slide     x
Adjusting the guide play of the top slide     x
Lubricating the oils on the change gears x    
Lubricating the oils on the headstock x    
Lubricating the oils on the lead screw bearing x    
Lubricating the oils on the slides x    
Lubricating the oils on the tailstock x    

If you use your lathe less frequently, adjust the maintenance interval accordingly.

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